The right to a prosperous life and the right to access health services are the rights of citizens enshrined in the Constitution of Indonesia. The obligation to provide health protection and services is specifically regulated in Law No. 40/2004 under the National Social Security System (SJSN). As a commitment to provide universal health coverage (UHC), the government of Indonesia launched National Health Insurance (Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional – JKN) in 2014. Based on data from the Healthcare and Social Security Agency (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial – BPJS Health), JKN membership has reached 224.1 million or 83 per cent of the total population of Indonesia. This number is below the government’s target of 100 per cent coverage in 2019.
This report examines progress towards UHC in Indonesia. By adopting frameworks developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), this study measures UHC in two dimensions: (1) Service Coverage Index, measuring the progress of health service coverage in all provinces in Indonesia and, (2) Financial protection, measuring catastrophic spending and impoverishment due to out-of-pocket spending on health care in all provinces in Indonesia.
PRAKARSA, as a think-tank organization that participates in advocating for the importance of social protection in Indonesia, believes it is important to assess progress towards achieving UHC in order to identify highlight areas that need improvement. This report will provide recommendations for the government and other key stakeholders to further develop strategic policies to improve accessibility to and the quality of the national health insurance program.
This report contributes to ongoing efforts to improve access to health coverage and well-being of Indonesians. Indonesia needs to continue strengthening efforts for achieving UHC as mandated in the Constitution. Failure to do so will mean not all citizens will have access to affordable health coverage.
Thank you and congratulations to Herawati, Robert Franzone, and Adrian Chrisnahutama as the main researchers who wrote this report. Thank you to Herni Ramdlaningrum, Eka Afrina Djamhari, and Cut Nurul Aidha and others who supervised and provided constructive criticism to strengthen the quality of this report. Thank you also to all parties, both internal and external, who provided support toward this report, especially to Brot fur die Welt. Hard work will never betray the results, and the best of good intentions are those carried out in the form of deeds.
I wish you an enjoyable and informative read. We welcome feedback and further discussion on this important policy issue.